Is It a Snake

One day I was visiting a temple in which snakes were worshiped. I happened to find a golden plate of dimension 2 * n in it. It had 2 rows of n cells each, and so the total number of cells is 2 * n. Each cell of the plate was either white or black, denoted by '.' and '#' respectively. Legend says that a snake was lying on this plate for many years and prayed. So, the cells that were covered by its body have turned black, the rest of the cells were white. Its entire body was supposedly on this pla

Sum of Digits

You're given an integer N. Write a program to calculate the sum of all the digits of N. Input The first line contains an integer T, the total number of testcases. Then follow T lines, each line contains an integer N. Output For each test case, calculate the sum of digits of N, and display it in a new line. Constraints 1 ≤ T ≤ 1000 1 ≤ N ≤ 1000000 Example Input 3 12345 31203 2123 Output 15 9 8

Bytelandian gold coins

In Byteland they have a very strange monetary system. Each Bytelandian gold coin has an integer number written on it. A coin n can be exchanged in a bank into three coins: n/2, n/3 and n/4. But these numbers are all rounded down (the banks have to make a profit). You can also sell Bytelandian coins for American dollars. The exchange rate is 1:1. But you can not buy Bytelandian coins. You have one gold coin. What is the maximum amount of American dollars you can get for it? Input T

Marbles

Rohit dreams he is in a shop with an infinite amount of marbles. He is allowed to select n marbles. There are marbles of k different colors. From each color there are also infinitely many marbles. Rohit wants to have at least one marble of each color, but still there are a lot of possibilities for his selection. In his effort to make a decision he wakes up. Now he asks you how many possibilities for his selection he would have had. Assume that marbles of equal color can't be distinguished, and t

Root of the Problem

Chef has a binary tree. The binary tree consists of 1 or more nodes. Each node has a unique integer id. Each node has up to 2 children, which are identified by their ids, and each node is the child of at most 1 other node. A node X is considered to be an ancestor of node Y if node Y is a child of node X or if there is some node Z for which X is an ancestor of Z and Y is a child of Z. No node is an ancestor of itself. A special node called the root node is an ancestor of all other nodes. Chef