# Intro to Tutorial Challenges

### Problem Statement :

```About Tutorial Challenges
Many of the challenges on HackerRank are difficult and assume that you already know the relevant algorithms. These tutorial challenges are different. They break down algorithmic concepts into smaller challenges so that you can learn the algorithm by solving them. They are intended for those who already know some programming, however. You could be a student majoring in computer science, a self-taught programmer, or an experienced developer who wants an active algorithms review. Here's a great place to learn by doing!

The first series of challenges covers sorting. They are listed below:

Tutorial Challenges - Sorting

Insertion Sort challenges

Insertion Sort 1 - Inserting
Insertion Sort 2 - Sorting
Correctness and loop invariant
Running Time of Algorithms
Quicksort challenges

Quicksort 1 - Partition
Quicksort 2 - Sorting
Running time of Quicksort
Counting sort challenges

Counting Sort 1 - Counting
Counting Sort 2 - Simple sort
Counting Sort 3 - Preparing
There will also be some challenges where you'll get to apply what you've learned using the completed algorithms.

Each challenge will describe a scenario and you will code a solution. As you progress through the challenges, you will learn some important concepts in algorithms. In each challenge, you will receive input on STDIN and you will need to print the correct output to STDOUT.

There may be time limits that will force you to make your code efficient. If you receive a "Terminated due to time out" message when you submit your solution, you'll need to reconsider your method. If you want to test your code locally, each test case can be downloaded, inputs and expected results, using hackos. You earn hackos as you solve challenges, and you can spend them on these tests.

For many challenges, helper methods (like an array) will be provided for you to process the input into a useful format. You can use these methods to get started with your program, or you can write your own input methods if you want. Your code just needs to print the right output to each test case.

Sample Challenge
This is a simple challenge to get things started. Given a sorted array () and a number (), can you print the index location of  in the array?

Example

Return  for a zero-based index array.

If you are going to use the provided code for I/O, this next section is for you.

Function Description

Complete the introTutorial function in the editor below. It must return an integer representing the zero-based index of .

introTutorial has the following parameter(s):

int arr[n]: a sorted array of integers
int V: an integer to search for
Returns

int: the index of  in
The next section describes the input format. You can often skip it, if you are using included methods or code stubs.

Input Format

The first line contains an integer, , a value to search for.
The next line contains an integer, , the size of . The last line contains  space-separated integers, each a value of  where .

The next section describes the constraints and ranges of the input. You should check this section to know the range of the input.```

### Solution :

```                            ```Solution in C :

In  C++  :

#include <cmath>
#include <cstdio>
#include <vector>
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;

int main() {

int V, N;
cin >> V >> N;
int temp = 0;;
for(int i = 0; i < N; i++){
cin >> temp;
if(temp == V){
cout << i << endl;
return 0;
}
}
cout << -1 << endl;

return 0;
}

In   Java  :

import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
import java.text.*;
import java.math.*;
import java.util.regex.*;

public class Solution {

public static void main(String[] args) {

Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in);
int v = in.nextInt();
int n = in.nextInt();

int[] ar = new int[n];
for(int i=0;i<n;i++){
ar[i]=in.nextInt();
}

int i=0;
while (ar[i]<v){
i++;
}
System.out.println(i);

}
}

In  C  :

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int main() {

int n,size,i,dub,ans;
scanf("%d",&n);
scanf("%d",&size);
for(i=0;i<size;i++)
{scanf("%d",&dub);
if(dub==n)
ans=i;}
printf("%d",ans);
return 0;
}

In   Python3  :

val = int(input())
size = int(input())
arr = [int(i) for i in input().split()]
x = 0
for j in arr:
if val == j:
break
x = x+1
print(x)```
```

## Merge two sorted linked lists

This challenge is part of a tutorial track by MyCodeSchool Given pointers to the heads of two sorted linked lists, merge them into a single, sorted linked list. Either head pointer may be null meaning that the corresponding list is empty. Example headA refers to 1 -> 3 -> 7 -> NULL headB refers to 1 -> 2 -> NULL The new list is 1 -> 1 -> 2 -> 3 -> 7 -> NULL. Function Description C

## Get Node Value

This challenge is part of a tutorial track by MyCodeSchool Given a pointer to the head of a linked list and a specific position, determine the data value at that position. Count backwards from the tail node. The tail is at postion 0, its parent is at 1 and so on. Example head refers to 3 -> 2 -> 1 -> 0 -> NULL positionFromTail = 2 Each of the data values matches its distance from the t

## Delete duplicate-value nodes from a sorted linked list

This challenge is part of a tutorial track by MyCodeSchool You are given the pointer to the head node of a sorted linked list, where the data in the nodes is in ascending order. Delete nodes and return a sorted list with each distinct value in the original list. The given head pointer may be null indicating that the list is empty. Example head refers to the first node in the list 1 -> 2 -

## Cycle Detection

A linked list is said to contain a cycle if any node is visited more than once while traversing the list. Given a pointer to the head of a linked list, determine if it contains a cycle. If it does, return 1. Otherwise, return 0. Example head refers 1 -> 2 -> 3 -> NUL The numbers shown are the node numbers, not their data values. There is no cycle in this list so return 0. head refer

## Find Merge Point of Two Lists

This challenge is part of a tutorial track by MyCodeSchool Given pointers to the head nodes of 2 linked lists that merge together at some point, find the node where the two lists merge. The merge point is where both lists point to the same node, i.e. they reference the same memory location. It is guaranteed that the two head nodes will be different, and neither will be NULL. If the lists share

## Inserting a Node Into a Sorted Doubly Linked List

Given a reference to the head of a doubly-linked list and an integer ,data , create a new DoublyLinkedListNode object having data value data and insert it at the proper location to maintain the sort. Example head refers to the list 1 <-> 2 <-> 4 - > NULL. data = 3 Return a reference to the new list: 1 <-> 2 <-> 4 - > NULL , Function Description Complete the sortedInsert function