# Intro to Tutorial Challenges

### Problem Statement :

```About Tutorial Challenges
Many of the challenges on HackerRank are difficult and assume that you already know the relevant algorithms. These tutorial challenges are different. They break down algorithmic concepts into smaller challenges so that you can learn the algorithm by solving them. They are intended for those who already know some programming, however. You could be a student majoring in computer science, a self-taught programmer, or an experienced developer who wants an active algorithms review. Here's a great place to learn by doing!

The first series of challenges covers sorting. They are listed below:

Tutorial Challenges - Sorting

Insertion Sort challenges

Insertion Sort 1 - Inserting
Insertion Sort 2 - Sorting
Correctness and loop invariant
Running Time of Algorithms
Quicksort challenges

Quicksort 1 - Partition
Quicksort 2 - Sorting
Running time of Quicksort
Counting sort challenges

Counting Sort 1 - Counting
Counting Sort 2 - Simple sort
Counting Sort 3 - Preparing
There will also be some challenges where you'll get to apply what you've learned using the completed algorithms.

Each challenge will describe a scenario and you will code a solution. As you progress through the challenges, you will learn some important concepts in algorithms. In each challenge, you will receive input on STDIN and you will need to print the correct output to STDOUT.

There may be time limits that will force you to make your code efficient. If you receive a "Terminated due to time out" message when you submit your solution, you'll need to reconsider your method. If you want to test your code locally, each test case can be downloaded, inputs and expected results, using hackos. You earn hackos as you solve challenges, and you can spend them on these tests.

For many challenges, helper methods (like an array) will be provided for you to process the input into a useful format. You can use these methods to get started with your program, or you can write your own input methods if you want. Your code just needs to print the right output to each test case.

Sample Challenge
This is a simple challenge to get things started. Given a sorted array () and a number (), can you print the index location of  in the array?

Example

Return  for a zero-based index array.

If you are going to use the provided code for I/O, this next section is for you.

Function Description

Complete the introTutorial function in the editor below. It must return an integer representing the zero-based index of .

introTutorial has the following parameter(s):

int arr[n]: a sorted array of integers
int V: an integer to search for
Returns

int: the index of  in
The next section describes the input format. You can often skip it, if you are using included methods or code stubs.

Input Format

The first line contains an integer, , a value to search for.
The next line contains an integer, , the size of . The last line contains  space-separated integers, each a value of  where .

The next section describes the constraints and ranges of the input. You should check this section to know the range of the input.```

### Solution :

```                            ```Solution in C :

In  C++  :

#include <cmath>
#include <cstdio>
#include <vector>
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;

int main() {

int V, N;
cin >> V >> N;
int temp = 0;;
for(int i = 0; i < N; i++){
cin >> temp;
if(temp == V){
cout << i << endl;
return 0;
}
}
cout << -1 << endl;

return 0;
}

In   Java  :

import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
import java.text.*;
import java.math.*;
import java.util.regex.*;

public class Solution {

public static void main(String[] args) {

Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in);
int v = in.nextInt();
int n = in.nextInt();

int[] ar = new int[n];
for(int i=0;i<n;i++){
ar[i]=in.nextInt();
}

int i=0;
while (ar[i]<v){
i++;
}
System.out.println(i);

}
}

In  C  :

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int main() {

int n,size,i,dub,ans;
scanf("%d",&n);
scanf("%d",&size);
for(i=0;i<size;i++)
{scanf("%d",&dub);
if(dub==n)
ans=i;}
printf("%d",ans);
return 0;
}

In   Python3  :

val = int(input())
size = int(input())
arr = [int(i) for i in input().split()]
x = 0
for j in arr:
if val == j:
break
x = x+1
print(x)```
```

## Print the Elements of a Linked List

This is an to practice traversing a linked list. Given a pointer to the head node of a linked list, print each node's data element, one per line. If the head pointer is null (indicating the list is empty), there is nothing to print. Function Description: Complete the printLinkedList function in the editor below. printLinkedList has the following parameter(s): 1.SinglyLinkedListNode

## Insert a Node at the Tail of a Linked List

You are given the pointer to the head node of a linked list and an integer to add to the list. Create a new node with the given integer. Insert this node at the tail of the linked list and return the head node of the linked list formed after inserting this new node. The given head pointer may be null, meaning that the initial list is empty. Input Format: You have to complete the SinglyLink

Given a pointer to the head of a linked list, insert a new node before the head. The next value in the new node should point to head and the data value should be replaced with a given value. Return a reference to the new head of the list. The head pointer given may be null meaning that the initial list is empty. Function Description: Complete the function insertNodeAtHead in the editor below

## Insert a node at a specific position in a linked list

Given the pointer to the head node of a linked list and an integer to insert at a certain position, create a new node with the given integer as its data attribute, insert this node at the desired position and return the head node. A position of 0 indicates head, a position of 1 indicates one node away from the head and so on. The head pointer given may be null meaning that the initial list is e

## Delete a Node

Delete the node at a given position in a linked list and return a reference to the head node. The head is at position 0. The list may be empty after you delete the node. In that case, return a null value. Example: list=0->1->2->3 position=2 After removing the node at position 2, list'= 0->1->-3. Function Description: Complete the deleteNode function in the editor below. deleteNo

## Print in Reverse

Given a pointer to the head of a singly-linked list, print each data value from the reversed list. If the given list is empty, do not print anything. Example head* refers to the linked list with data values 1->2->3->Null Print the following: 3 2 1 Function Description: Complete the reversePrint function in the editor below. reversePrint has the following parameters: Sing