# Bit Array

### Problem Statement :

```You are given four integers: N ,S ,P ,Q . You will use them in order to create the sequence a  with the following pseudo-code.

a = S (modulo 2^31)
for i = 1 to N-1
a[i] = a[i-1]*P+Q (modulo 2^31)
Your task is to calculate the number of distinct integers in the sequence a.

Input Format

Four space separated integers on a single line N,S ,P and Q  respectively.

Output Format

A single integer that denotes the number of distinct integers in the sequence a .

Constraints

1 <= N <= 10^8
0 <= S,P,Q <= 2^31```

### Solution :

```                            ```Solution in C :

#include <cmath>
#include <cstdio>
#include <vector>
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;

unsigned insert(unsigned x) {
unsigned res = (mask[x >> 6] & (1ULL << (x & 0x3F))) == 0;
mask[x >> 6] |= 1ULL << (x & 0x3F);
return res;
}

int main() {
unsigned N, S, P, Q;
cin >> N >> S >> P >> Q;
unsigned x = S;
unsigned ans = 0;
ans += insert(x);
for (unsigned i = 1; i < N; i++) {
x = (1LL * x * P + Q) % 2147483648;
ans += insert(x);
}
cout << ans << endl;
return 0;
}```
```

## Sparse Arrays

There is a collection of input strings and a collection of query strings. For each query string, determine how many times it occurs in the list of input strings. Return an array of the results. Example: strings=['ab', 'ab', 'abc'] queries=['ab', 'abc', 'bc'] There are instances of 'ab', 1 of 'abc' and 0 of 'bc'. For each query, add an element to the return array, results=[2,1,0]. Fun

## Array Manipulation

Starting with a 1-indexed array of zeros and a list of operations, for each operation add a value to each of the array element between two given indices, inclusive. Once all operations have been performed, return the maximum value in the array. Example: n=10 queries=[[1,5,3], [4,8,7], [6,9,1]] Queries are interpreted as follows: a b k 1 5 3 4 8 7 6 9 1 Add the valu

## Print the Elements of a Linked List

This is an to practice traversing a linked list. Given a pointer to the head node of a linked list, print each node's data element, one per line. If the head pointer is null (indicating the list is empty), there is nothing to print. Function Description: Complete the printLinkedList function in the editor below. printLinkedList has the following parameter(s): 1.SinglyLinkedListNode

## Insert a Node at the Tail of a Linked List

You are given the pointer to the head node of a linked list and an integer to add to the list. Create a new node with the given integer. Insert this node at the tail of the linked list and return the head node of the linked list formed after inserting this new node. The given head pointer may be null, meaning that the initial list is empty. Input Format: You have to complete the SinglyLink